Archive from February, 2015
Feb 27, 2015 - Business Permit    No Comments

South Africa gives Brics port of entry visas

26 February 2015 – Moneyweb
The duration of visas for business executives is up to ten years.
Business and diplomatic travellers from South Africa’s Brics partners will receive port of entry visas into the country, Home Affairs Minister Malusi Gigaba said on Thursday.
“I have approved the issuance of port of entry visas to Brics business executives for up to 10 years, with each visit not to exceed 30 days,” he told the Cape Town Press Club.
The visas had been in effect since December 23 last year.
“This applies to diplomatic, official/service, and ordinary passport holders.”
Gigaba said the relevant individuals would receive a long-term visa allowing them multiple entry into the country for the duration of the passport’s validity, not exceeding ten years.
The department would continue to meet a turnaround time of five days for short-term business visas.
It had consulted extensively with the Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (Brics) business council and the trade and industry department.
Gigaba said the four countries presented an “important investment potential”. Together with South Africa, they comprised 40% of the world’s population.
“Business people from Brazil, Russia, India, and China want to come to our country, buy and sell an increasing array of products and services, and invest in our companies and growth sectors,” he said.
“At home affairs we are completely committed to enabling this by facilitating the efficient entry of these commercial visitors, and will continually look for opportunities to improve in this regard.”
The department had not demanded reciprocal arrangements from Brics partners.
Gigaba smiled when asked if his announcement would anger countries that had long-established trading relationships with South Africa.
“No, every good thing must start somewhere,” he said.
The arrangement may well be extended to other countries which had “significant investments” locally.
“These are issues that you undertake as you improve your systems.”
He said a “trusted traveller system” would be available to business people outside Brics.
Leisure travellers could extend their visa while in the country, but needed to return home if required to apply for a new visa.
These new regulations had been introduced to counter a “complete abuse” of the local immigration system, which had seen people apply for jobs while on a tourist visa to avoid police clearance and issues with financial statements.
Gigaba said he would soon announce a panel of experts to conduct a complete review of the system used to issue visas.

Feb 26, 2015 - Business Permit    No Comments

Kenyan Tourism Entrepreneur Carves Her Niche in China

25 February 2015 – All Africa
Nairobi — About two years ago, the China National Tourism Administration released statistics that made many people in the sector across the world begin to think hard.
About 100 million Chinese tourists were leaving the country every year to tour various parts of the world. The number made China one of the biggest source market for international tourists across the world.
Kenyan woman Sandra Rwese was among those who got interested in the startling figures. Rwese, who started learning Chinese in 2008 at the University of Nairobi Confucius Institute, and by then had started developing interest in the country, saw an opportunity in the business.
“Essentially, the statistics led me to believe this was the nation to focus on for the next 50 years. I researched further and discovered the greatest opportunity lay in mastering the language and helping non-Chinese tourism enterprises secure a strong customer base in the country,” Rwese told Xinhua.
In 2013, noted Rwese, over 100 million Chinese tourists left their country to tour the world, and the number of the Chinese tourists will hit 200 million by 2020.
“The tourists, according to the figures I have seen from China Tourism Academy, spent 102 billion U.S. dollars in 2012, and in 2013, about 120 billion dollars. This means the Chinese are the future of global tourism. I believe I am in the right industry.”
Rwese, who is currently based in China but comes to Kenya regularly, runs a social media tourism firm called Gulu and Hirst (G&H), and through this consulting firm, she links African companies in the tourism and hospitality sector to the Chinese market.
“I mainly work with non-Chinese outfits looking to secure a piece of this multimillion-dollar Asian market: mainly in advertising, tourism and banking. I help translate their digital content, develop sales strategies, rebrand products or services and provide cross-cultural training to fit Chinese preferences,” said Rwese, 39, who is based in southern China’s Xiamen City where she runs G&H after relocating from Kenya in 2013.
Her nascent company is also appointed to oversee daily social media functions on Sina Weibo, China’s biggest social media platform, Instagram, and corporate websites.
“The Chinese are very inquisitive and keen to learn more about services we offer. The important thing for us as a company is the response time while dealing with them because China is so techno- savvy that as G&H we are always on the go,” said Rwese.
However, not all is a smooth ride in China in the business and social fronts as Rwese outlines some of the challenges she encounters.
“The Chinese take time to trust independent consultants like myself. They prefer their own in-house staff, which doesn’t work well when negotiating or communicating with non-Chinese,” said Rwese.
“But all in all, they have been very supporting. I also admire the way they are hardworking: it is something I have embraced,” said the entrepreneur, adding that her business with the Chinese has greatly improved her life.
“I am now an ardent fan of social media. I know what digital strategies will or won’t work with customers. As such, I advise businesses accordingly, some advice which comes as a complete surprise to their management teams,” she said.
Rwese observed that it is time ordinary Kenyans take a front- line role in fostering relation between Kenya and China.
“We need millions of speakers to cover every sector of the economy, from agriculture to sports, and especially finance, if we are to benefit from the Chinese,” she said, noting Kenyans also need to embrace Chinese mandarin to enhance interaction with the Chinese.
“Kenyans should also watch Chinese television channels now available in the country to familiarise with China and the people. Many of my friends are Kenyans who speak Chinese. Basically, I make an effort to surround myself with language and customs and that is the way to go.”

Feb 26, 2015 - Business Permit    No Comments

Angola Grants Multiple Entry Tourism Visa

25 February 2015 – All Africa
Luanda — The authorities of the Republic of Angola as of next march will start granting tourism and ordinary visas with multiple entries, announced last Monday, in Luanda, the Home Affairs minister, Ângelo Veiga.
Speaking at the opening ceremony of the Broad Consultative Council of the Home Affairs Ministry, Ângelo Veiga Tavares explained that the modernisation process taking place in the Migration and Foreigners Services (SME) has enabled to overcome the hindrances regarding the introduction of multiple entry visas.
He also announced that soon the 4 de Fevereiro International Airport, in Luanda, will set up the RAPID system, which will enable Angolan and foreign citizens to pass through the immigration control system in less than fifteen seconds.
Ângelo Veiga Tavares also stressed that special attention must be paid to the Criminal Investigation Services, which, in turn, also pay special attention to the relationship with international police organs, Interpol and other partners.
He also stressed that there is a need to improve the relationship with the media aiming for a better divulgence of the activities of the Home Affairs Ministry.
The Broad Consultative Council of the Home Affairs Ministry is set to end this Tuesday.

Feb 24, 2015 - Business Permit    No Comments

New SA visa rules: ‘Kings in Ivory Towers need to visit Komati’

2015-02-23 Traveller24
Cape Town – International travellers are being advised that South Africa’s visa rules may yet again change, following a report in which Department of Home Affairs spokesperson Mayihlome Tshwete says the birth certificates would have to be in English so that “South Africa’s customs officials could read them”.
In June 2014 South Africa’s immigration regulation, requiring unabridged birth certificates or a country’s equivalent thereof for children travelling to, from or through South Africa, was initially put on hold until 1, June 2015. Additionally, the department of home affairs and the department of tourism announced that the unabridged birth certificate would not need to be in English.
Many key tourism industry stakeholders have blamed the new rules for a decrease in arrivals and bookings from certain key source markets, including China and India.
A number of readers have contacted Traveller24 since the new visa rules were initially announced, sharing how they have been affected.
Following Mondays report that the rules may again change Traveller24 reader Nigel Hallowes expressed his concern that authorities may be targeting the wrong ports of entry. He sugests that the new rules have done nothing to curb illegal immigrants at certain border crossings.
Following is the email sent by Hallowes to Traveller24:
“The ‘kings in their Ivory towers’ have zero experience in this field. They have no idea what happens on the ground. So they make rules based on theory and erroneous reports.
“Do they really think that they have the skills to identify a Fake English Birth Certificate from Moratainia or Lithuania?
“Do they think that they can set standards for all these countries and train all their staff to recognize all these Original Documents?
That been said, if I can pay R50 to a border guard to turn the other way for 30 seconds, would this not be my better option.
“Of course they think that the human trafficking that they so desperately want to stop, is coming through OR Tambo, probably on Business class.
“Spend one day at Ressano / Komati border and watch the hordes of people illegally crossing though the official border, or better yet travel 2km down the road and watch then come out of the bush and get into waiting taxies.
“Then follow these taxies to JHB, and watch them get stopped (about 4 times between Nelspruit and Ressano) at make shift road blocks and watch the money change hands.
“This is not clandestine, or at night. This is open and in full view of everyone who travels that road.
“But yet they will continue to make “Un-implementable no- realistic” rules to control those who are controllable. The rest will operate outside the system.

Feb 24, 2015 - Business Permit    No Comments

SA’s visa rules for children to change again – report

2015-02-23 – Traveller24

Cape Town – Tourism Update reports the department of home affairs says South Africa’s immigration regulations now require unabridged birth certificates or a country’s equivalent thereof for travelling minors, to be in English.
Many breathed a sigh of relief when the Department of Home Affairs agreed to delay the implementation of an unabridged birth certificate requirement for children travelling to, from or through South Africa until 1, June 2015 – but questions remained for the unique criteria which inadvertently overrides the use of an international passport, to a certain degree.
The SA immigration requirement for an unabridged birth certificate, which names the child’s mother and father – or the equivalent thereof from their country of origin is said to be a means to curb child trafficking across SA’s borders.
But the criteria has in turn badly affected inbound tourism from South Africa’s key source markets such as China, with the Minister of Home Affairs Malusi Gigaba and the Minister of Tourism opting to add a reprieve in that the unabridged birth certificate would not need to be in English.
However, according to the report this is no longer the case. In the report department spokesperson, Mayihlome Tshwete says the birth certificates would have to be in English so that “South Africa’s customs officials could read them”.
Tshwete reportedly also says “most countries supplied birth certificates in English”, including India and China.
According to Tshwete, the change is said to be due to the department realising that the untranslated document was “not going to be feasible and that the translation is going to have to happen, despite what the rules say”.
No official announcement has been made as yet, nor is any statement available on the department’s website.
As previously state by Hannekom, the departments have been looking to reduce the negative effects of the immigration regulations, by addressing the number of visa facilitation centres, specifically looking to address the situation in major cities outside of Shanghai, Beijing, Deli and Mumbai for example.
At the time Hannekom said South Africa needs to find the right balance between appropriate measures to protect its boundaries, combat child trafficking and to do it in such a way that it has a “minimal negative impact on tourism”.

Feb 23, 2015 - Business Permit    No Comments

Grappling with identity: In the footsteps of Africa’s ‘nowhere and everywhere children’

21 Feb 2015 Benon Herbert Oluka – Mail & Guardian
A growing number of young Africans are struggling to root themselves; products of their parents moves across borders in search of opportunities.
IN 2007, when Allan-Roy Sekeitto won the opportunity to participate in a continental reality television show, Imagine Africa, its organisers profiled him as a representative of two countries; South Africa and Uganda. He was born in neither.
Sekeitto, now 28, was at the time a medical student in South Africa’s University of Limpopo. He was born in Botswana, where both his parents worked.
Shortly before his second birthday, the family moved to South Africa, where they have lived to-date in the city of Johannesburg. Sekeitto is thus a child of three countries; none of which has fully embraced him. He is a child of everywhere and nowhere.
A practising doctor, his parents hail from Uganda. However, because he only makes occasional trips to the East African nation, he does not speak any local language neither is he sufficiently grounded in the customs of his ancestral home.
He was born in Botswana but is not a citizen. He has lived in South Africa nearly all of his life and holds the country’s passport, but is many times made to feel like an outsider. In a profile for the Imagine Africa show, the South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) described him as “a Ugandan based in South Africa”.
Not that easy
However, when asked how he classifies himself given his diverse background, Sekeitto puts down the labels rather philosophically. “I see myself as a Pan-African child. The classification is easy; according to nationality, I am South African. According to birth, I am from Botswana. According to ancestry, I am Ugandan. It is as easy as that.”
Yet, several minutes into the discussion, it is evident that things are not that easy. Every so often, according to Sekeitto, circumstances compel him to revisit the issue of exactly where he belongs.
A week before our interview, for instance, Sekeitto says a patient at the Johannesburg hospital where he works asked, “where are you from? I can tell from your accent that you are from ‘out’.”
And his response?
“I started laughing because I have been here since I was one and a half so what [other] accent did I have a chance to get?”
Other times, Sekeitto’s diverse heritage has had more serious consequences. “Legally in South Africa I am not defined as a black person because I only got citizenship in 1996. So I can’t even take all the advantages that come with being a black African in South Africa,” he said.
Missed out on opportunities
His mother, Dr Ikatekit, says her son missed out on several opportunities due to his status. “Allan couldn’t get a bursary like other students because he is a born Tswana [from Botswana]. We had to borrow, get a bank loan, etc., to pay for his education. It was very expensive. [Because of his status] whatever he wants, he has to fight more than everyone else. He doesn’t get it automatically.”
Sekeitto, whose family lives in the upscale Johannesburg suburb of Sandton, has faced most hurdles stoically. However, one encounter at the O. R. Tambo International Airport in 2001 almost got to him. Dr Ikatekit sent him on a maiden solo journey to Uganda but airport authorities arrested him. The crime?
Passport and language
“I was detained at the airport because they said there is no way I can be of age 15, have a South African passport and not speak a local language,” he said.
He was eventually released, but Sekeitto was rattled enough to tell his mother on reaching Uganda that he did not want to return to South Africa. That episode seems to have had a lasting impact on Sekeitto because he has since shaped the view of South Africa as merely “a home of convenience”.
“It is not a nice feeling [to be detained] and, essentially, I think about it: would I want my children to grow up in a similar environment? Is it really necessary? There are very strong negative opinions here which I don’t experience in my ancestral home. There they can say, ‘Ah, you don’t speak Luganda [the local language] but they understand that it is my home. They just take it like that. It is not like here where [not speaking the local languages] is an active point emphasised every day,” he said.
Grappling with identity
Several young adults would identify with him. They are part of a growing phenomenon of Africans who have lived a cross-cultural upbringing on their own continent due to the movement of their parents in search of greener pastures. Sekeitto’s elder sister Claire, who was born in Uganda but lived all her formative years in South Africa, and his younger brother Malvern Lubega, who was born in South Africa, are also grappling with the problem.
When Claire married a Ugandan, she tried to relocate with him to the East African country. But she found it difficult to fit in and has since returned down south.
The Sekeittos are a microcosm of a growing phenomenon in Africa. Between the 1970s to early 1990s, several professionals left their homelands to escape political uncertainty and civil war, or to work and settle in other African countries that promised better opportunities. They started families and became parents in far-away lands.
Third culture children
Several years later, their offspring have entered adulthood, and are confronted with questions of their identity. These young people, referred in some parts of the world as “nowhere children”, or “third culture kids”, are born in a culture outside that of their parents. Others move through cultures during their formative years and never get the opportunity to root their own cultural identity.
A World Bank report, Diasporas of the South: Situating the African Diaspora in Africa, notes that by 2001, South Africa’s migrant stock was just over one million, with 72 per cent being from Africa. While more recent figures are scarce, the African diaspora in South Africa – one of Africa’s top two economies – has grown considerably.
With communication across Africa getting easier, and businesses expanding beyond borders, many Africans have migrated from their home countries to other places on the continent that offer better life opportunities.
For instance, banks and insurance companies from West African countries such as Nigeria and Togo have spread out into East Africa and beyond, while South Africa’s retailers, telecommunications companies and television firms have tentacles as far as Nigeria and Ghana. In East Africa, Kenya’s commercial banks and supermarket chains have spread their tentacles to nearly every other neighbouring country.
Other African economies are also increasingly becoming attractive to ordinary Africans because conditions in Europe and the United States have since become harder due to the recent global economic meltdown.
Xenophobic fears
One of the results of the movement of Africans to other countries is the fear that they are taking up opportunities meant for locals. This has given birth to xenophobic behaviour, as seen in South Africa in the recent past. In one particularly gruesome incident in 2007, a man was burnt alive, while in other incidents, including early this year, property belonging to immigrants was stolen.
On January 28, 2015, the African Diaspora Forum wrote an open letter to South Africa’s President Jacob Zuma, in which it decried the growing xenophobic violence.
“Today, we are deeply worried about the current course of violence across the country and the lack of effective response from the government to deal with xenophobia. The cost of the violence has been estimated to many losses of lives, millions of Rands lost during the looting and thousands of displacements since 2008,” the ADF said in its letter, pleading for stronger government intervention.
In May 2012, the African Union held a Global African Diaspora Summit, coincidentally, the conference was held in Johannesburg, South Africa.
Abandoned to own devices
In their declaration at the end of the summit, African leaders pledged to “cooperate in the political, economic and social areas outlined” between the African Union and entities in regions that have African Diaspora populations.
However, if the declaration made by the African countries is anything to go by, then the AU did not consider ways through which it can support the African Diaspora on the continent. In that sense, the bloc has effectively left the Sekeittos of South Africa, the nowhere children of Africa, to their own devices.
Leticia Agula’s family relocated to South Africa 14 years ago, when she was aged.
On her maiden trip back to Uganda, her country of birth, Agula says she encountered a way of life that she did not know and was not accustomed to.
“Going back, I did sort of feel like people felt like I was not from Uganda even before I had opened my mouth. So I felt a little bit like an outsider. I am very different from a lot of women in Uganda. I had to re-adjust to kneeling [when greeting elders] and the way of dressing,” she said.
Over the years, and thanks to the fact that her parents always prepared Ugandan food, Agula says she eventually adjusted – and now often looks forward to the trips back to Uganda. She is even mulling investing in the East African country as one way of regularly keeping in touch with her roots.
‘Belonging and knowing’
If she has children of her own, Agula says she would want to ensure that they do not lose their Ugandan roots, regardless of which part of the world she will be living in.
“It is very important because it is my background and I would want that for my kids. Having kids with no cultural background or anything is not good. And culture doesn’t necessarily mean you must know how to speak the language 100%. It is just about belonging and knowing where your roots are and appreciating it; that is what I want,” she says.
Those sentiments are shared by the Sekeittos, who are also exploring business and other opportunities in his parents’ country of birth.
The younger Sekeitto, Malvern, an economist, says he is looking for an opportunity “to add value” to Uganda.
“My mother has made it a point that we go to Uganda every year. It helps you appreciate how far you have come. I think there is a great opportunity for me to go back to Uganda and add value,” he says.
‘A whole new level’
Sekeitto says his intention is to keep one foot permanently in Uganda for the sake of the next generation.“Even if it is not from the economic point of view, for me it has to do with heritage,” he says.
“It is good to tell your kids one day that we have something back home. When your kids ask, ‘Daddy where are we from?’ You can’t tell them we are from Sandton. For me that’s a key thing. The kids must be able to say we are from Uganda and they have an understanding and a grasp of it. That adds a whole new level of character and riches to one’s growth and maturity.”
Other Africans in the Diaspora within the continent may wish to continue to live in their adopted countries. However, until the people in those countries embrace them too, they could become a people of everywhere and nowhere.

Feb 23, 2015 - Business Permit    No Comments

Why Africa needs to bash Chinese migrants less – you wouldn’t think it but we’re more alike than we know

08 Feb 2015 Samantha Spooner – Mail & Guardian
There is an invasion of the continent, the story goes. Yet in just 10 years, some 200,000 Africans migrated to a single Chinese city.
CHINESE missionaries in South Africa are stepping in to help Chinese migrants who, because of language barriers, cultural differences and high crime rates in the local society, have been living in isolation.
This tendency to cluster together has however been one of the factors responsible for the growing negative perception of Chinese individuals in Africa. From conservationists who issue blanket statements blaming every single Chinese migrant for the loss of wildlife, to business owners who bemoan the loss of trade, to those who are inundated with the fear of a Chinese “invasion”, the Chinese are singled out for everything that goes wrong.
Anti-Chinese sentiment is on the rise in many African countries, and in some places, has often spiralled out of control with attacks on Chinese-owned businesses and individuals. But a paper by the South African Institute of International Affairs (SAIA) on Chinese migration in Africa recently brought these issues to the fore, challenging the root of this xenophobia with solid arguments that also revealed striking cultural and political similarities between the Chinese and Africans.
The numbers
For some, the anti-Chinese sentiment is driven by the idea of a foreign community taking over the continent in sheer numbers. But even those numbers are themselves hard to determine; SAIA’s report placed the total number of Chinese in Africa at between 580,000 to over 800,000, but that was in 2009. An estimate by journalist and author Howard French in his book China’s Second Continent, advanced the figure of those that have moved to Africa in the last two decades to over a million.
But even with this higher estimate, consider that in another part of the world, between 1990 and 2013, some 2.2 million Chinese migrants moved to a single country—the United States. Additionally, in 2009 France had 400,000 Chinese, Japan 600,000 and there were approximately 900,000 Chinese living in Canada. Suddenly, the notion that Africa is a target being flooded with Chinese nationals does not seem too dramatic.

Additionally, when dealing with their numbers, the report also highlighted that some local African media companies would inflate the figures for a more dramatic effect, for example in both Namibia and Zambia the local press reported upwards of 40,000 Chinese in each of those countries, when the real numbers range from 4,000 to 6,000.
The numbers of Chinese in an area may also seem hyperbolised because of an inability to distinguish a Chinese national from other East Asians. (Yet even Africans have trouble picking each other out in a crowd, as this story shows).
So while some may be concerned at the high numbers of the Chinese in Africa, the broader migration picture needs to be kept in mind, particularly when contemplating the fact that while there are approximately 200,000 – 400,000 Chinese living in South Africa (the African country with by far the largest Chinese population), in just 10 years some 200,000 Africans migrated to a single Chinese city – Guangzhou.
The loss of business
For those whose anti-Chinese sentiment is driven by perceived loss of business, many Chinese migrants come to Africa to earn a living—but many also return. A huge proportion of Chinese migrants are in fact temporary labour, most of these migrants stay for the duration of their contracts (typically one to three years) and then make their way back.
These migrants are the individuals who rouse anger towards Chinese firms who plump for them, along with or rather than, local labour – on a continent that already has high unemployment rates. The firms justify these practices with productivity arguments – that it would be virtually impossible to work effectively with locals within tight time constraints considering the vast language and cultural barriers.
However, the Chinese are not the only foreigners working under wage contracts – and those who do are paid much less and live more frugally than Western expats doing comparable work.

In 1992, Africa employed 100,000 developed country expats at a cost of $4 billion per year, about $40,000 per individual or nearly $800 per week. Even currently, Chinese wages are not nearly as high. Chinese employees (including managers, engineers, and skilled craftsmen) of one construction firm in Angola for example receive $500 a month, live two to three to a room, and cook for themselves.
Copy cat
For those migrants that stay, it is true that when more businesses open up, there is competition and a potential loss of trade. It is also true of the case of any people opening a business, yet for the Chinese the perception of them is often through a “predatory” lens: that they are looking to exploit the local situation.
Some further observations are made, and questioned, of the Chinese presence in Africa.
First, it is fact that Chinese-made “African” products are swamping markets, but many local groups have domestically exploited and engaged in copying each other’s artefacts for decades. For example in Kenya, you will often find that the vendors of “Maasai” products at local tourism markets and fairs are not the famed Maasai in any shape or form, despite sometimes donning Maasai dress.
When it comes to “stealing” or competing for markets, political scientist Barry Sautman noted that worldwide, Chinese exports compete with African exports almost solely in textiles and clothing and China, in fact the Asian country supplies African firms with most of the cloth they need to compete in their main market, the United States.
For the individual, an interesting observation by SAIA is that migrants concerned often do not enter the established wage labour market, but set up their own business, most commonly retail or wholesale of Chinese goods, Chinese food or Chinese traditional medicine. This partly explains the proliferation of China towns across the world.
While the Chinese wholesale centres, through household goods brought to Africa by Chinese, and Africans, do inhibit light industry and may harm the poor as potential producers, they also do have some benefits.
In Johannesburg, the wholesale centres have provided local and regional consumers which have created a lot of employment. They also provide affordable goods which the SAIA stated was a contributing factor to a “very favourable perception of China, simply because they can now buy a broader range of affordable consumer goods.”
This is with the exception of the Copperbelt, where the Chinese have a particularly bad and largely deserved, many argue, reputation associated with the working conditions at the Chinese-operated mine. But for perspective, analysts say this is the action of a few individuals and not the entire Chinese migrant community.
Western discourse
Western discourse, media and sometimes African governments themselves have all had a role to play in the perpetuating of anti-Chinese sentiment that has proliferated in Africa.
Western sentiment has played on the perception that China’s relationship with the continent proliferates corruption, supports illiberal regimes and exploitative practices, but it also neglects to mention its own policies and agreements which demonstrate the West’s support of authoritarianism, the perpetuation of poverty through liberal trade agreements and the negative effects of the structural adjustment programmes.
Yet these perceptions of China have stuck, and now trickle down to influence local perceptions of the Chinese individual. This type of hostility is little else but racism, and, should it not be nabbed in its infancy, will make the clash of cultures all the more severe.

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