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24. May. 2024 Tech Republic

Generative AI Defined: How it Works, Benefits and Dangers




Table of Contents

-What is generative AI in simple terms
-How does generative AI work
-Examples of generative AI
-Types of generative AI models
-What is ChatGPT
-What is Google Gemini
-Benefits of generative AI
-Use cases of generative AI
-Dangers and limitations of generative AI
-What is the difference between generative AI and general AI
-What is the difference between generative AI and machine learning
-What is the difference between generative AI and regenerative AI
-How big a role will generative AI play in the future of business?

What is generative AI in simple terms Generative AI is a type of artificial intelligence technology that broadly describes machine learning systems capable of generating text, images, code or other types of content, often in response to a prompt entered by a user. Generative AI models are increasingly being incorporated into online tools and chatbots that allow users to type questions or instructions into an input field, upon which the AI model will generate a human-like response. How does generative AI work Generative AI uses a computing process known as deep learning to analyze patterns in large sets of data and then replicates this to create new data that appears human-generated. It does this by employing neural networks, a type of machine learning process that is loosely inspired by the way the human brain processes, interprets and learns from information over time. To give an example, if you were to feed lots of fiction writing into a generative AI model, it would eventually gain the ability to craft stories or story elements based on the literature it`s been trained on. This is because the machine learning algorithms that power generative AI models learn from the information they`re fed - in the case of fiction, this would include elements like plot structure, characters, themes and other narrative devices. Generative AI models get more sophisticated over time - the more data a model is trained on and generates, the more convincing and human-like its outputs become. Examples of generative AI The popularity of generative AI has exploded in recent years, largely thanks to the arrival of OpenAI`s ChatGPT and DALL-E models, which put accessible AI tools into the hands of consumers. Since then, big tech companies including Google, Microsoft, Amazon and Meta have launched their own generative AI tools to capitalize on the technology`s rapid uptake. Various generative AI tools now exist, although text and image generation models are arguably the most well-known. Generative AI models typically rely on a user feeding a prompt into the engine that guides it towards producing some sort of desired output, be it text, an image, a video or a piece of music, though this isn`t always the case. Examples of generative AI models include: - ChatGPT: An AI language model developed by OpenAI that can answer questions and generate human-like responses from text prompts. - DALL-E 3: Another AI model by OpenAI that can create images and artwork from text prompts. - Google Gemini: Previously known as Bard, Gemini is Google`s generative AI chatbot and rival to ChatGPT. It`s trained on the PaLM large language model and can answer questions and generate text from prompts. - Claude 2.1: Anthropic`s AI model, Claude, offers a 200,000 token context window, which its creators claim can handle more data than its competitors. - Midjourney: Developed by San Francisco-based research lab Midjourney Inc., this gen AI model interprets text prompts to produce images and artwork, similar to DALL-E. - GitHub Copilot: An AI-powered coding tool that suggests code completions within the Visual Studio, Neovim and JetBrains development environments. - Llama 2: Meta`s open-source large language model can be used to create conversational AI models for chatbots and virtual assistants, similar to GPT-4. - Grok: After co-founding and helping to fund OpenAI, Elon Musk left the project in July 2023 and announced this new generative AI venture. Its first model, the irreverent Grok, came out in November 2023. - Cohere AI`s Command R: The startup Cohere AI announced in April a new model for enterprise, Command R, which is designed for generative AI adoption at scale. In particular, Command R is optimized for retrieval-augmented generation (RAG). RAG is intended to improve the accuracy of generative AI responses by checking them against a source. Types of generative AI models Various types of generative AI models exist, each designed for specific tasks and purposes. These can broadly be categorized into the following types. Transformer-based models Transformer-based models are trained on large sets of data to understand the relationships between sequential information like words and sentences. Underpinned by deep learning, transformer-based models tend to be adept at natural language processing and understanding the structure and context of language, making them well suited for text-generation tasks. ChatGPT-3 and Google Gemini are examples of transformer-based generative AI models. Generative adversarial networks Generative adversarial networks are made up of two neural networks known as a generator and a discriminator, which essentially work against each other to create authentic-looking data. As the name implies, the generator`s role is to generate convincing output, such as an image based on a prompt, while the discriminator works to evaluate the authenticity of said image. Over time, each component gets better at their respective roles, resulting in more convincing outputs. DALL-E and Midjourney are examples of GAN-based generative AI models. Variational autoencoders Variational autoencoders leverage two networks to interpret and generate data - in this case, an encoder and a decoder. The encoder takes the input data and compresses it into a simplified format. The decoder then takes this compressed information and reconstructs it into something new that resembles the original data but isn`t entirely the same. One example might be teaching a computer program to generate human faces using photos as training data. Over time, the program learns how to simplify the photos of people`s faces into a few important characteristics - such as the size and shape of the eyes, nose, mouth, ears and so on - and then use these to create new faces. This type of VAE might be used to, say, increase the diversity and accuracy of facial recognition systems. By using VAEs to generate new faces, facial recognition systems can be trained to recognize more diverse facial features, including those that are less common. Multimodal models Multimodal models can understand and process multiple types of data simultaneously, such as text, images and audio, allowing them to create more sophisticated outputs. An example might be an AI model capable of generating an image based on a text prompt, as well as a text description of an image prompt. DALL-E 3 and OpenAI`s GPT-4 are examples of multimodal models. Foundation models Foundation models are the bedrock of generative AI chatbots. They may be machine learning or deep learning systems. Either way, foundation models are trained on corpuses of data. From there, any AI tool built from that particular foundation model will be able to refer to that data. Foundation models can be further customized or used to answer general questions. OpenAI`s GPT-4, Amazon`s Titan and Anthropic`s Claude are some examples of foundation models. Frontier models `Frontier model` is a term for hypothetical upcoming AI that could far surpass the capabilities of today`s AI. There is no single definition of a frontier model`s capabilities, except that those capabilities will be larger in scope and more powerful than the AI available today. The term is sometimes used in the context of future-proofing today`s technology against possible future threats. Some people have begun to refer to today`s high-performance generative AI, such as GPT-4 or Mistral AI, as `frontier AI,` muddying the definition somewhat. What is ChatGPT ChatGPT is an AI chatbot developed by OpenAI. It`s a large language model that uses transformer architecture - specifically, the generative pretrained transformer, hence GPT - to understand and generate human-like text. What is Google Gemini Google Gemini (previously Bard) is another example of an LLM based on transformer architecture Similar to ChatGPT, Gemini is a generative AI chatbot that generates responses to user prompts. Google launched Bard in the U.S. in March 2023 in response to OpenAI`s ChatGPT and Microsoft`s Copilot AI tool. It was launched in Europe and Brazil later that year. Benefits of generative AI For businesses, efficiency is arguably the most compelling benefit of generative AI because it can help automate specific tasks and focus employees` time, energy and resources on more important strategic objectives. This can result in lower labor costs, greater operational efficiency and insights into how well certain business processes are - or are not - performing. For professionals and content creators, generative AI tools can help with idea creation, content planning and scheduling, search engine optimization, marketing, audience engagement, research and editing, and potentially more. Again, the key proposed advantage is efficiency, because generative AI tools can help users reduce the time they spend on certain tasks and invest their energy elsewhere. That said, manual oversight and scrutiny of generative AI models remains highly important; we explain why later in this article. Use cases of generative AI McKinsey estimates that, by 2030, activities that currently account for around 30% of U.S. work hours could be automated, prompted by the acceleration of generative AI. Generative AI has found a foothold in a number of industry sectors and is now popular in both commercial and consumer markets. The use of generative AI varies from industry to industry and is more established in some than in others. Current and proposed use cases include the following: - Healthcare: Generative AI is being explored as a tool for accelerating drug discovery, while tools such as AWS HealthScribe allow clinicians to transcribe patient consultations and upload important information into their electronic health record. - Digital marketing: Advertisers, salespeople and commerce teams can use generative AI to craft personalized campaigns and adapt content to consumers` preferences, especially when combined with customer relationship management data. - Education: Some educational tools are beginning to incorporate generative AI to develop customized learning materials that cater to students` individual learning styles. - Finance: Generative AI is one of the many tools within complex financial systems to analyze market patterns and anticipate stock market trends, and it`s used alongside other forecasting methods to assist financial analysts. - Environment: In environmental science, researchers use generative AI models to predict weather patterns and simulate the effects of climate change. In terms of role-specific use cases of generative AI, some examples include: - In customer support, AI-driven chatbots and virtual assistants can help businesses reduce response times and quickly deal with common customer queries, reducing the burden on staff. - In software development, generative AI tools can help developers code more cleanly and efficiently by reviewing code, highlighting bugs and suggesting potential fixes before they become bigger issues. - Writers can use generative AI tools to plan, draft and review essays, articles and other written work - though often with mixed results.



Dangers and limitations of generative AI A major concern around the use of generative AI tools - and particularly those accessible to the public - is their potential for spreading misinformation and harmful content. The impact of doing so can be wide-ranging and severe, from perpetuating stereotypes, hate speech and harmful ideologies to damaging personal and professional reputation. The risk of legal and financial repercussions from the misuse of generative AI is also very real; indeed, it has been suggested that generative AI could put national security at risk if used improperly or irresponsibly. These risks haven`t escaped policymakers. On Feb. 13, 2024, the European Council approved the AI Act, a first-of-kind piece of legislation designed to regulate the use of AI in Europe. The legislation takes a risk-based approach to regulating AI, with some AI systems banned outright. Security agencies have made moves to ensure AI systems are built with safety and security in mind. In November 2023, 16 agencies including the U.K.`s National Cyber Security Centre and the U.S. Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency released the Guidelines for Secure AI System Development, which promote security as a fundamental aspect of AI development and deployment. Generative AI has prompted workforce concerns, most notably that the automation of tasks could lead to job losses. Research from McKinsey suggests that, by 2030, around 12 million people may need to switch jobs, with office support, customer service and food service roles most at risk. The consulting firm predicts that clerks will see a decrease of 1.6 million jobs, `in addition to losses of 830,000 for retail salespersons, 710,000 for administrative assistants and 630,000 for cashiers.`



What is the difference between generative AI and machine learning Generative AI is a subfield of artificial intelligence; broadly, AI refers to the concept of computers capable of performing tasks that would otherwise require human intelligence, such as decision making and NLP. Generative AI models use machine learning techniques to process and generate data. Machine learning is the foundational component of AI and refers to the application of computer algorithms to data for the purposes of teaching a computer to perform a specific task. Machine learning is the process that enables AI systems to make informed decisions or predictions based on the patterns they have learned. What is the difference between generative AI and discriminative AI Whereas generative AI is used for generating new content by learning from existing data, discriminative AI specializes in classifying or categorizing data into predefined groups or classes. Discriminative AI works by learning how to tell different types of data apart. It`s used for tasks where data needs to be sorted into groups; for example, figuring out if an email is spam, recognizing what`s in a picture or diagnosing diseases from medical images. It looks at data it already knows to classify new data correctly. So, while generative AI is designed to create original content or data, discriminative AI is used for analyzing and sorting it, making each useful for different applications. What is the difference between generative AI and regenerative AI Regenerative AI, while less commonly discussed, refers to AI systems that can fix themselves or improve over time without human help. The concept of regenerative AI is centered around building AI systems that can last longer and work more efficiently, potentially even helping the environment by making smarter decisions that result in less waste. In this way, generative AI and regenerative AI serve different roles: Generative AI for creativity and originality, and regenerative AI for durability and sustainability within AI systems. How big a role will generative AI play in the future of business It certainly looks as though generative AI will play a huge role in the future. As more businesses embrace digitization and automation, generative AI looks set to play a central role in industries of all types, with many organizations already establishing guidelines for the acceptable use of AI in the workplace. The capabilities of gen AI have already proven valuable in areas such as content creation, software development, medicine, productivity, business transformation and much more. As the technology continues to evolve, gen AI`s applications and use cases will only continue to grow. That said, the impact of generative AI on businesses, individuals and society as a whole is contingent on properly addressing and mitigating its risks. Key to this is ensuring AI is used ethically by reducing biases, enhancing transparency and accountability and upholding proper data governance. None of this will be straightforward. Keeping laws up to date with fast-moving tech is tough but necessary, and finding the right mix of automation and human involvement will be key to democratizing the benefits of generative AI. Recent legislation such as President Biden`s Executive Order on AI, Europe`s AI Act and the U.K.`s Artificial Intelligence Bill suggest that governments around the world understand the importance of getting on top of these issues quickly.

V.5389
21. Jun. 2024 Business Tech

Big loss for Home Affairs in South Africa

The Department of Home Affairs has lost its legal battle over Zimbabwean Exemption Permits (ZEPs). The Helen Suzman Foundation and the Consortium for Refugees and Migrants in South Africa (CoRMSA) previously took the Minister of Home Affairs Aaron Motsoaledi to court over his termination of the ZEP under the Promotion of Administrative Justice Act, 2000 (PAJA). V.5436

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21. Jun. 2024 Business Day

The real culprit behind SA’s immigration woes

Proposed changes to the Citizenship Act fail to deal with the most serious problem: the department of home affairs The final white paper released recently by the home affairs ministry has brought SA’s immigration landscape into sharp focus. While it highlights several areas of concern within the present immigration framework, it fails to address the deeper issue at hand: the department of home affairs itself. V.5437

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21. Jun. 2024 The Citizen

Woman still fighting Home Affairs for ID 10 years later

Primrose Modisane, denied South African citizenship, fights decade-long battle for identity documentation and recognition. A Gauteng-based woman has been living a life of squalor because she does not have an identity document Primrose Modisane, 36, from Vosloorus in Ekurhuleni, claims she has tried in vain to convince the department of home affairs to issue her documentation as they kept on demanding endless proof that she was South African. V.5438

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21. Jun. 2024 MoonStone

SCA overturns precedent-setting cyber-crime judgment

The Supreme Court of Appeal (SCA) has set aside a judgment that opened the door to liability claims against businesses that send their banking details in an unsecured manner to a debtor who falls victim to cyber-crime. In January last year, the High Court in Johannesburg ordered law firm Edward Nathan Sonnenbergs (ENS) to pay Judith Hawarden R5.5 million, plus interest and costs. Hawarden lost the money in August 2019 when she transferred the balance owed on a R6m property purchase. Hawarden thought she was paying the money into ENS’s account, but a cyber-criminal had accessed her email account. V.5440

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21. Jun. 2024 Tourism Update

Onerous visa regs threaten SA’s headquarter ambitions

South Africa’s immigration regulations could threaten the country’s aim to be the headquarters base for multinationals wanting to expand their operations into Africa, the Business Day reports. According to the report, Tata International has decided to base some of its key personnel in Tanzania because of the long delay in getting visas and work permits for its senior managers in SA. V.5441

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19. Jun. 2024 Business Day

There is a palpable change at home affairs department

But efficiency is not enough; applications must be processed fairly and approved without bias Something appears to have shifted within the department of home affairs, sparking a glimmer of hope for visa applicants and practitioners alike. In recent months there has been a noticeable increase in the speed at which applications are being processed. While it is too early to determine the exact cause, it is worth noting that this acceleration coincides with ongoing court cases challenging the department’s handling of immigration matters. Whether these changes are a direct response to legal pressure remains speculative, but the progress and outcomes we’re witnessing are undeniable. This is a significant step forward, signalling a potential turnaround in the backlog that has plagued the immigration system since the reopening after the Covid lockdowns. Could this be the beginning of the end for the backlog? We cautiously hope so. V.5432

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19. Jun. 2024 BBC

Biden to give legal status to 500,000 undocumented spouses

President Joe Biden has announced a new policy that would protect hundreds of thousands of undocumented spouses of US citizens from deportation, according to administration officials. The issue of immigration has proven an election-year headache for Mr Biden, who recently issued a sweeping executive action to curb record migrant arrivals at the US-Mexico border. The new policy will apply to those who have been in the country for at least 10 years and will allow them to work in the US legally. The White House believes more than 500,000 spouses will be eligible. Speaking at an event at the White House on Tuesday, Mr Biden said the move would help the US immigration system become less `unfair` and `unjust` for the benefit of immigrants, married couples - and all Americans. V.5433

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19. Jun. 2024 News24

Constitutional Court dismisses application for leave to appeal Zimbabwe permit decision

he Constitutional Court dismissed an application by the home affairs minister for leave to appeal a June 2023 Gauteng High Court in Pretoria ruling that the Zimbabwean Exemption Permit (ZEP) programme had been unlawfully terminated. The court ordered the minister to meaningfully consult with the 178 000 affected permit holders, according to GroundUp. The matter was brought to court by the Helen Suzman Foundation, which argued that the minister had not taken into account the profound impact of the termination of the ZEP programme on those who had been living and working in South Africa, legally, for more than a decade. V.5434

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18. Jun. 2024 Enca

GNU | PA wants either Home Affairs or Police Ministry

JOHANNESBURG - The Patriotic Alliance says it`s willing to take the Police Ministry if Home Affairs isn`t up for grabs. The party has been gunning for Home Affairs, promising to mass deport all illegal foreigners. V.5429

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18. Jun. 2024 Travel Channel

Schengen-Style Visas For Asia & Africa? Exploring A New Era Of Multi-Country Travel

Will the proposed Schengen-style multi-country unified visa system ease travel across Southeast Asia, the Middle East and southern Africa? Visa applications can be time-consuming, with embassies evaluating documents, biometrics, and travel history. The US and Schengen visas have gained a global reputation for their thorough and extensive processes. However, in the wake of the pandemic, there has been a global surge in tourism and many countries are seeking to streamline visa processes to boost tourism and the local economies. Visas are being reimagined through new schemes and policies, with many nations bringing in the Schengen-style unified multi-country visa. V.5430

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18. Jun. 2024 The South African

Zimbabwe consulate in South Africa rolls out e-passports

Zimbabwe’s consulate in South Africa has announced that it will start rolling out an e-passport facility, starting on Tuesday. Consul-General Eria Phiri explained in a public notice that the first phase involved training consulate staff. This concluded on 15 June, and will now be followed by a system test run from June 18 to 21. South Africa is home to over one million Zimbabwean nationals. This is according to the country’s census data and the International Organisation for Migration (IOM). The IOM also notes that many have entered South Africa without proper documentation. Zimbabweans have left their home country en masse to escape a political crisis, harsh economic conditions and chronic underdevelopment. V.5431

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13. Jun. 2024 IOL

Namibia demands reciprocal visas for their nationals

Nationals from thirty one countries will need to complete an online application form and obtain visas-on-arrival. Namibia`s Ministry of Home Affairs, Immigration, Safety and Security (MHAISS) has declared that thirty one countries, mainly from Europe, will be removed from its visa-exempt list due to the lack of reciprocal visa arrangements for Namibian citizens. While the implementation date is yet to be determined, nationals from these countries will need to complete an online application form and obtain visas-on-arrival, as stated by MHAISS. V.5428

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11. Jun. 2024 IOL

Border management dispels rumours claiming that there are flight delays at OR Tambo Airport

The Border Management Authority (BMA) has dismissed reports claiming that a transition to a biometric system at OR Tambo International Airport is causing delays for all international departures and arrivals. Commissioner at BMA, Dr Michael Masiapato said the false reports have caused unnecessary concern among travellers and stakeholders. V.5427

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10. Jun. 2024 Times Lives

Home affairs grapples with authenticity of relationships

The department needs to establish authenticity before granting spousal or relative visas A major headache for the department of home affairs in processing temporary residence visas is having to establish the authenticity of relationships claimed between individuals. V.5421

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10. Jun. 2024 Visa News

5 South African Countries Announce Plans to Introduce Single Visa to Promote Tourism

Key Takeaways • Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe are planning to introduce a single tourist visa. • This visa, similar to the Schengen one, will permit entry to all these five countries for a short period. • GCC countries will soon also launch a single visa. Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe have announced plans to simplify the movement of foreign travelers within their territories without the need to apply for separate documents. V.5422

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10. Jun. 2024 The South African

There’s a huge VISA backlog at home affairs that’s stifling SA

It’s ironic that with so many South Africans trying to leave the country, it’s a visa backlog for people trying to get INTO the country that’s stifling economic growth. According to a report from Business Tech, the Department of Home Affairs (DHA) has a visa backlog of 62 000 applications. These are for people and workers trying to get into the country to fill critical skills shortages. Now, visa agent Xpat, says the DHA are rejecting applications out of hand to simply try clear the huge visa backlog. The agent specialises in work permits for people coming to South Africa. It says individuals, HR professionals and businesses face lengthy delays and a needlessly complex application process WHAT’S THE REASON FOR THE VISA BACKLOG? Since COVID, there have been a number of changes to rectify problems within the DHA. And Xpatweb believes these administrative processes have led to mounting rejections for frivolous reasons. V.5423

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10. Jun. 2024 News24

`Habibi, come to South Africa!`: Dubai Bling`s Ebraheem confirms Forever Rose coming to SA

• Ebraheem Al Samadi, celebrated for his role on Dubai Bling, chose South Africa as his exquisite holiday destination. • He praised the country`s stunning landscapes, rich history, and the warmth of its people, declaring it an ideal vacation destination. • Al Samadi revealed plans to expand his Forever Rose café franchise to South Africa and teases what he describes as the ultimate season of Dubai Bling. `My name is Ebraheem, and this is my tongue. Beware!` The Blooming Man says in Netflix`s Dubai Bling, an iconic line that cements his place as `the son of a king, and the son of a queen`. V.5424

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10. Jun. 2024 The Guardian

High court rules Home Office acted unlawfully over visa documents

Home Office failed to provide digital proof of status to those applying for visa extensions, in new Windrush-style scandal The Home Office is facing a new Windrush-style scandal after a landmark high court ruling found that the home secretary acted unlawfully by failing to provide documents to thousands of migrants proving they are here legally. The charity Ramfel brought the legal challenge along with Cecilia Adjei, a healthcare worker and mother of two boys aged 17 and 11, who came to Britain from Ghana in 2000. V.5425

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10. Jun. 2024 City Press

SA`s population is getting older: `New report offers government blueprint for future planning`

Expert says the new report gives government an opportunity to plan ahead to meet the country’s needs. The South African population has grown by 1.1% in the past year to about 63.1 million. Of this number, 51.6 million are black Africans, followed by coloured people and the white population projected at about 5 175 608 and 4 607 554, respectively. People of Indian and Asian origin are estimated to be at 1.7 million. V.5426

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07. Jun. 2024 BusinessTech

South Africa scores massive own-goal

Woes within South Africa’s visa processes have left businesses and skilled workers in limbo, hurting investment and business activity as a result. Recently, French diplomats warned that South Africa’s strict visa requirements are driving investors away. In addition to this, Western Cape Provincial Minister of Finance and Economic Opportunities, Mireille Wenger, said that a key obstacle attracting investment and expanding business is “the broken South African visa regime.” “To facilitate foreign investment, companies need to be able to easily access South Africa and those who apply for critical skills visas typically help to develop new and existing sectors, in line with international best practice or by helping to new industries through skills development,” said Wegner. Companies aiming to operate in the country must invest a minimum of R5 million and ensure at least 60% of their employees are South African. V.5419

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Articles

21. Jun. 2024 Business Tech

Big loss for Home Affairs in South Africa

The Department of Home Affairs has lost its legal battle over Zimbabwean Exemption Permits (ZEPs). The Helen Suzman Foundation and the Consortium for Refugees and Migrants in South Africa (CoRMSA) previously took the Minister of Home Affairs Aaron Motsoaledi to court over his termination of the ZEP under the Promotion of Administrative Justice Act, 2000 (PAJA). V.5436

Click here for full article

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